Research: Monica Peters, Edward Weckerly (CSG Justice Center)

Writing: Megan Grasso, Katie Mosehauer, Michelle Rodriguez (CSG Justice Center)

Editorial: Leslie Griffin (CSG Justice Center)

Support: Babatunde Aremu, Harmony Jovet, Jenna Lapidus,  Ben Mahrer, Cassondra Warney (CSG Justice Center)

Web Design: Sara Duell

Web Development: Karen Ball, Mark O’Neil (CSG Justice Center), Eleventy Marketing Group

The CSG Justice Center would like to thank the U.S Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance, ASCA, and department of corrections staff in all 50 states for supplying and reviewing the original research conducted for this report.

This project was supported by Grant No. 2015-ZB-BX-K001 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The Bureau of Justice Assistance is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Office for Victims of Crime, and the SMART Office. Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. To learn more about the Bureau of Justice Assistance, please visit