Graphic Visualizations Index

Interactive Graphics

Violent crime rates vary greatly across states.
Violent crime and arrest rates vary greatly by state.
Almost all states can improve tracking and reporting on recidivism data.
The size of states’ prison, parole, and probation populations has fluctuated…

Part 1

Victimization data is key to understanding how much crime goes unreported.
The number of drug overdose deaths is almost four times higher than the number of homicides.
The number of drug overdose deaths is almost four times higher than…
Crime data, arrest data, and victimization surveys are all necessary to understand criminal activity in a state.
Crime data, arrest data, and victimization surveys are all necessary to understand…
While only 18 states had increases in the rate of violent crime during the last decade, 34 states had increases of more than 5 percent in at least one of the four categories of violent crime.
While only 18 states had increases in the rate of violent crime…
While arrests for violent crime increased in only 17 states in the past decade, 28 states saw arrests increase more than 5 percent in at least one of four categories of violent crime offenses.
While arrests for violent crime increased in only 17 states in the…
National property and violent crime rates have dropped 50 percent since their peak.
National property and violent crime rates have dropped 50 percent since their…
Most states have experienced a decline in the property crime rate since 2006.
Most states have experienced a decline in the property crime rate since…
Violent crime rates increased in 18 states between 2006 and 2016.
Violent crime rates increased in 18 states between 2006 and 2016.
In 2016, the violent crime rate was at a 10-year low in 4 states.
In 2016, the violent crime rate was at a 10-year low in…
In 2016, the violent crime rate was at a 10-year high in 12 states.
In 2016, the violent crime rate was at a 10-year high in…
In 16 states, violent crime rates decreased overall, but increased in rural areas.
In 16 states, violent crime rates decreased overall, but increased in rural…
In 13 states, violent crime rates are at least three times higher than arrest rates for violent crime.
In 13 states, violent crime rates are at least three times higher…
Male violent victimization rates have recently fallen below that of females for the first time since the early 1970s.
Male violent victimization rates have recently fallen below that of females for…
Although violent victimization rates for people of color decreased, people of color continue to experience higher rates of violent victimization compared to white people.
Although violent victimization rates for people of color decreased, people of color…
More than half of people who experience violent crime do not report these incidents to police.
More than half of people who experience violent crime do not report…
Transitioning to the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) from the Summary Reporting System (SRS) can help enhance crime and arrest reporting.
Transitioning to the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) from the Summary Reporting…
Since NIBRS was implemented in 1991, only 16 states have converted all local law enforcement agencies to this system for reporting crime and arrests.
Since NIBRS was implemented in 1991, only 16 states have converted all…
Demographic information can be collected at each stage of the criminal justice system and is critical to ensuring that people are treated fairly under the law.
Demographic information can be collected at each stage of the criminal justice…
Most states report not using a common ID number across criminal justice data systems, compromising a state’s ability to conduct key analyses.
Most states report not using a common ID number across criminal justice…
More than half of states report having systems that give supervision officers the ability to determine when people on their caseloads are arrested, but this is not necessarily done automatically.
More than half of states report having systems that give supervision officers…
More than half of states report having systems that give law enforcement the ability to determine supervision status when a person is arrested, but this is not necessarily done automatically.
More than half of states report having systems that give law enforcement…
The proportion of people in the criminal justice system who have a serious mental illness or addictive disorder is greater than for the general public.
The proportion of people in the criminal justice system who have a…
People who have behavioral health needs can be identified with screening and assessment at different stages of the justice system.
People who have behavioral health needs can be identified with screening and…
The Criminogenic Risk and Behavioral Health Needs Framework can help determine who to connect to treatment and supports, and who to prioritize for intensive treatment, supervision, and supports.
The Criminogenic Risk and Behavioral Health Needs Framework can help determine who…
To implement the Criminogenic Risk and Behavioral Health Framework, states and counties need a range of community-based treatment, services, and supports, and crisis response options and community engagement.
To implement the Criminogenic Risk and Behavioral Health Framework, states and counties…
The capacity of behavioral health care providers varies from state to state.
The capacity of behavioral health care providers varies from state to state.
The 16 states with the highest drug overdose death rates are primarily located in the Northeast.
The nine states with the highest drug overdose death rates are primarily…
Nearly every state had an increase in overdose death rates of more than 5 percent between 2006 and 2016. In 16 states, overdose death rates more than doubled during this period.
Nearly every state had an increase in overdose death rates of more…
Supervision, treatment, and services need to focus on improving behavioral health outcomes and reducing recidivism.
Supervision, treatment, and services need to focus on improving behavioral health outcomes…
To reduce recidivism among people most likely to reoffend, treatment and services must be coordinated and intensive enough to address their multiple needs.
To reduce recidivism among people most likely to reoffend, treatment and services…
Collaboration between behavioral health and criminal justice agencies is key to successfully improving the identification of people who have behavioral health needs, developing a range of treatment and services, and improving quality.
Collaboration between behavioral health and criminal justice agencies is key to successfully…
The local jail population has quadrupled since the 1980s, but has leveled off in the last 10 years.
The local jail population has quadrupled since the 1980s, but has leveled…
The number of people admitted to jail each year is far greater than the number of people admitted to prison or the number that start probation or parole supervision.
The number of people admitted to jail each year is far greater…
The overall jail incarceration rate has increased in 24 states and fallen in 20 states in recent years.
The overall jail incarceration rate has increased in 24 states and fallen…
Changes in overall jail incarceration rates vary widely across states.
Changes in overall jail incarceration rates vary widely across states.
While the proportion of people in jail who have a serious mental illness is greater than for the general public, few jurisdictions know how many people in jail have behavioral health needs.
While the proportion of people in jail who have a serious mental…
Key data measures are essential to addressing the risk and needs of jail populations and ensuring that local governments use jail space cost effectively.
Key data measures are essential to addressing the risk and needs of…
Pretrial incarceration rates have increased in 25 states and fallen in 19 states.
Pretrial incarceration rates have increased in 25 states and fallen in 19…
Changes in pretrial incarceration rates vary widely across states.
Changes in pretrial incarceration rates vary widely across states.
While most people who are arrested do not have a criminal justice status, of those who do, the majority are on pretrial release at time of their arrest for a felony offense.
While most people who are arrested do not have a criminal justice…
18 states have passed legislation to require or authorize the use of pretrial risk assessment.
18 states have passed legislation to require or authorize the use of…
Research on the efficacy of policing practices has identified a range of effective and ineffective strategies for reducing violent crime.
Research on the efficacy of policing practices has identified a range of…
Rural areas have seen more significant increases in violent crime rates than metropolitan areas.
Rural areas have seen more significant increases in violent crime rates than…
Rural law enforcement jurisdictions are less likely than their urban counterparts to have the resources to employ strategies such as problem-oriented policing to counter increases in violent crime.
Rural law enforcement jurisdictions are less likely than their urban counterparts to…
Effective crime-fighting strategies require trust and collaboration between police and the communities they serve, which can be fostered by a variety of evidence-based strategies.
Effective crime-fighting strategies require trust and collaboration between police and the communities…
Community Policing
Geographic-Based Policing
Geographic-based Policing
Geographic-Based Policing
States are helping encourage community trust in police by improving data transparency, increasing use of body-worn cameras for better oversight of police activities, and restricting use of profiling in policing strategies.
States are helping encourage community trust in police by improving data transparency,…
States are helping encourage community trust in police by improving data transparency, increasing use of body-worn cameras for better oversight of police activities, and restricting use of profiling in policing strategies.
Body-Worn Cameras
States are helping encourage community trust in police by improving data transparency, increasing use of body-worn cameras for better oversight of police activities, and restricting use of profiling in policing strategies.
Police Profiling
Some states support or require specialized training for police officers to improve interactions between officers and people experiencing mental health crises.
Some states support or require specialized training for police officers to improve…
A number of states have passed laws to increase access to naloxone and/or remove barriers and liabilities for non-medical professionals, including law enforcement officers, in administering the drug to people experiencing an opioid overdose. However, only one state currently requires police to carry naloxone to treat overdoses.
A number of states have passed laws to increase access to naloxone…
Officers must be able to refer people experiencing mental health or overdose crises to community-based supports and services for appropriate ongoing care.
Officers must be able to refer people experiencing mental health or overdose…
Most jurisdictions rely on state crime labs for forensic analysis, where there are backlogs that hinder law enforcement’s ability to investigate crimes.
Most jurisdictions rely on state crime labs for forensic analysis, where there…
Police officers experience higher rates of obesity, PTSD, suicidal thoughts, troubled sleep, and other conditions than the general population. These physical and psychological health conditions adversely affect their quality of life and jeopardize public safety.
Police officers experience higher rates of obesity, PTSD, suicidal thoughts, troubled sleep,…
Officers must be able to refer people experiencing mental health or overdose crises to community-based supports and services for appropriate ongoing care.
Officers experiencing suicidal thoughts

Part 2

More than half of states have statewide laws or policies related to…
More than half of states have statewide laws or policies related to…
Few states track and publish multiple recidivism measures for people leaving prison.
Few states track and publish multiple recidivism measures for people leaving prison.
Few states track and publish any recidivism measures for the probation population.
Few states track and publish any recidivism measures for the probation population.
Reducing recidivism for the probation population can have a greater impact than focusing only on people released from prison.
Reducing recidivism for the probation population can have a greater impact than…
Tracking and reporting certain types of recidivism events offers more timely and actionable information than traditional cohort-based recidivism reporting.
Tracking and reporting certain types of recidivism events offers more timely and…
Half of states track and publish probation and parole revocations to prison, which are a more timely measure than cohort-based recidivism metrics.
Half of states track and publish probation and parole revocations to prison,…
Most states report not using a common ID number across criminal justice data systems, which limits their ability to conduct timely measures of recidivism.
Most states report not using a common ID number across criminal justice…
Half of states have committed to reducing recidivism through Statewide Recidivism Reduction grants.
Half of states have committed to reducing recidivism through Statewide Recidivism Reduction…
Risk and needs assessments can help corrections agencies target supervision resources to people most likely to reoffend.
Risk and needs assessments can help corrections agencies target supervision resources to…
Risk assessments need to be used at each stage of the justice system.
Risk assessments need to be used at each stage of the justice…
Only about half of states that use risk assessments for probation populations report validating the tools on their populations within the last five years.
Only about half of states that use risk assessments for probation populations…
Only about half of states that use risk assessments for parole populations report validating the tools on their populations within the last five years.
Only about half of states that use risk assessments for parole populations…
In 2015, states spent more than $40 billion on prisons, or nearly 10 times the amount spent on community supervision, yet state probation and parole populations are three times the size of state prison populations.
In 2015, states spent more than $40 billion on prisons, or nearly…
Existing national reports combine the number of people on probation for felonies and misdemeanors. Data collected from the states highlights the varied use of probation for felonies. Six states have felony probation populations that exceed 1 out of 100 adults.
Existing national reports combine the number of people on probation for felonies…
Most states have caps on felony probation terms and/or mechanisms to shorten them. Such policies allow states to focus supervision resources when people are most likely to reoffend.
Most states have caps on felony probation terms and/or mechanisms to shorten…
Rearrest rates for people released from prison in 30 states over five years shows that the bulk of recidivism occurs within the first year of release.
Rearrest rates for people released from prison in 30 states over five…
Three-quarters of states report that new probation officers are trained in core correctional practices (CCP) that are critical to helping people on supervision learn to change their behavior and succeed in the community.
Three-quarters of states report that new probation officers are trained in core…
Only half of states report providing core correctional practices (CCP) refresher training to probation officers. Ongoing training helps officers maintain skills and ensures consistency in supervision.
Only half of states report providing core correctional practices (CCP) refresher training…
Only 20 states report using core correctional practices (CCP) in probation officer performance evaluations, which can help ensure that staff adopt these practices and that the use of CCP is considered when promoting staff.
Only 20 states report using core correctional practices (CCP) in probation officer…
23 states do not allow probation officers to use short jail stays as a sanction without returning to court.
23 states do not allow probation officers to use short jail stays…
18 states do not allow parole officers to use short jail stays as a sanction without returning to court.
18 states do not allow parole officers to use short jail stays…
To reduce recidivism, policymakers need to consider who receives programming, what types of programs are employed, and the quality and effectiveness of those programs.
To reduce recidivism, policymakers need to consider who receives programming, what types…
Cognitive-behavioral programs with graduated skills practice have the largest impact on reducing recidivism.
Cognitive-behavioral programs with graduated skills practice have the largest impact on reducing…
Universal screening is critical to identifying people’s behavioral health needs. In 16 states, probation agencies report universal screening for behavioral health needs by using specialized behavioral health screening tools.
Universal screening is critical to identifying people’s behavioral health needs. In 16…
Fewer than half of states report that their probation agencies conduct evaluations of community programs and/or treatment provider outcomes, which are necessary to measure their quality and effectiveness.
Fewer than half of states report that their probation agencies conduct evaluations…
Fewer than half of states report that their parole agencies conduct evaluations of community program and/or treatment provider outcomes, which are necessary to measure their quality and effectiveness.
Fewer than half of states report that their parole agencies conduct evaluations…
To ensure sufficient availability of treatment and programming, states need to provide appropriate funding, expand the pool of qualified service providers, and require training.
To ensure sufficient availability of treatment and programming, states need to provide…
The capacity of behavioral health care providers varies from state to state.
The capacity of behavioral health care providers varies from state to state.
Employment services need to be tailored to people’s job readiness and criminogenic risk and needs.
Employment services need to be tailored to people’s job readiness and criminogenic…
People leaving incarceration need a range of supports, including housing.
People leaving incarceration need a range of supports, including housing.

Part 3

VOCA victim assistance funding has more than quadrupled in recent years, allowing…
Federal funding for each state’s victim compensation program has varied greatly in…
States must invest in technology infrastructure and agency personnel to track the…
States must communicate results to the public to maintain transparency and momentum…
The majority of states require a period of post-release supervision for people…
With strategic and targeted reinvestments, states can maximize the effectiveness of policy…
Some policies require upfront investment to generate outcomes.
States can use key measures and metrics to assess the impact of…
By assessing their needs, states can determine which agencies, programs, and services…
States often use one or a combination of four key methods to…
Federal funding can help supplement state budget allocations for public safety priorities…
In 2015, states spent nearly 10 times as much on prison as on community supervision.
In 2015, states spent nearly 10 times as much on prison as…
All but eight states saw an increase in correctional populations in the last decade.
All but eight states saw an increase in correctional populations in the…
The majority of states use projections to anticipate changes in prison populations, but few states use projections for parole or probation populations. Not all states publish their projections.
The majority of states use projections to anticipate changes in prison populations,…
24 of 31 states are projecting growth in their prison populations.
24 of 31 states are projecting growth in their prison populations.
In 16 of 39 states, at least 40 percent of people in prison had been convicted of property or drug offenses.
In 16 of 39 states, at least 40 percent of people in…
Analysis conducted during Justice Reinvestment projects in 17 states revealed that people revoked from probation and parole made up a significant portion of prison admissions.
Analysis conducted during Justice Reinvestment projects in 17 states revealed that people…